Sentencing in the age of artificial intelligence: possibilities, ethical issues, and the intrinsic human nature of the adjudication process

Autores/as

Palabras clave:

Artificial Intelligence; algorithms; Ethics; judicial decision-making; sentencing.

Resumen

The world's technological advancement in times of big data, machine learning, the ‘Internet of Things’ and artificial intelligence (AI) has been remarkable in recent decades. In the ‘digital era’, technological innovations such as electronic petition systems (PJe, EPROC and PROJUD) are already part of the reality of the Judiciary branch in Brazil. Artificial intelligence systems are also beginning to be developed in many courts. The present study addresses the problem of using AI at sentencing, exploring the potential of algorithms and the main ethical issues involved: fairness, accountability, and transparency. The research problematizes the most common approach found in specialized literature on the subject, according to which the advantages and disadvantages of using AI in sentencing must be measured vis-à-vis decisions traditionally made by human judges. Despite acknowledging that computerized sentences can produce more precise, consistent, and predictable judgments (therefore, more objective), the study argues that sentencing is essentially a human task, involving sensitivity and interpretation. Transforming sentencing into a purely mechanical, even machine-automated task, is to remove its inherently human element.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Citas

ABBOUD, G. & CAMPOS, R. “A autorregulação regulada como modelo do Direito proceduralizado: regulação de redes sociais e proceduralização”, in: ABBOUD, G., NERY Jr., N. & CAMPOS, R. (eds.). Fake news e regulação. Thomson Reuters, São Paulo, 2018.

BAGARIC, M. & WOLF, G. “Sentencing by computer: enhancing sentencing transparency and predictability, and (possibly) bridging the gap between sentencing knowledge and practice”, George Mason Law Review, vol. 25, nº 3, 2018.

BODEN, M. A. Inteligência artificial: uma brevíssima introdução, Editora Unesp, São Paulo, 2020.

BOLZAN DE MORAIS, J. L. As crises do estado e da constituição e a transformação espaço-temporal dos direitos humanos, 2nd edn, Livraria do Advogado, Porto Alegre, 2011.

BRENNAN, T., DIETRICH, W. & EHRET, B. “Evaluating the predictive validity of the COMPAS Risk and Needs Assessment System”, Criminal Justice and Behavior, vol. 36, nº 1 (2009), pp. 21-40, available in: https://doi.org/10.1177/0093854808326545,

BROCHADO, M. Inteligência artificial no horizonte da filosofia da tecnologia: técnica, ética e direito na era cybernética, Editora Dialética, São Paulo, 2023, available in: https://doi.org/10.48021/978-65-252-7454-6.

CAMPOS, G. S. Q. Aplicação da pena e o problema da discricionariedade judicial: breve estudo comparativo entre a dosimetria penal brasileira e o modelo de sentencing guidelines norte-americano e inglês, JusPodivm, Salvador, 2021.

CARVALHO, S. “O controle do substancialismo e do decisionismo na aplicação da pena”, Revista Direito em Debate, vol. 29, nº 54 (2020), pp. 311-317, available in: https://doi.org/10.21527/2176-6622.2020.54.311-317.

CHIAO, V. “Fairness, accountability and transparency notes on algorithmic decision-making in criminal justice”, International Journal of Law in Context, vol. 15 (2019), pp. 126-139, available in: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1744552319000077.

CHIAO, V. “Predicting proportionality: the case for algorithmic sentencing”, Criminal Justice Ethics, vol. 37, nº 3 (2018), pp. 238-261, available in: https://doi.org/10.1080/0731129X.2018.1552359.

CHIAO, V. “Transparency at sentencing: are human judges more transparent than algorithms?”, in: RYBERG, J. & ROBERTS, J. V. (eds.). Sentencing and artificial intelligence, Oxford University Press, New York, 2022, pp. 34-56, available in: https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780197539538.003.0003.

CONSELHO NACIONAL DE JUSTIÇA. Resolução nº 332, de 21 de agosto de 2020, available in: https://atos.cnj.jus.br/atos/detalhar/3429. Access: August 14, 2023.

DANZIGER, S., LEVAV, J. & AVNAIM-PESSO, L. “Extraneous factors in judicial decisions”, PNAS, vol. 108, nº 17 (2011), pp. 6889-6892.

DIETER, M. S. Política criminal atuarial: a criminologia do fim da história, Revan, Rio de Janeiro, 2013.

DIETVORST, B. J., SIMMONS, J. P. & MASSEY, C. “Algorithm aversion: people erroneously avoid algorithms after seeing them err”, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, vol. 144, nº 1, 2015, pp. 114-126, available in: https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000033.

DONOHUE, M. E. “A replacement for Justitia’s scales?: machine learning’s role in sentencing”, Harvard Journal of Law & Technology, vol. 32, nº 2 (2019), pp. 657-678.

DYMITRUK, M. “Artificial intelligence as a tool to improve the administration of justice?”, Acta Univ. Sapientiae, Legal Studies, vol. 8, nº 2 (2019), pp. 179-189, available in: https://doi.org/10.47745/AUSLEG.2019.8.2.03.

ELLUL, J. The technological society, Vintage Books, New York, 1964.

FEELEY, M. M. & SIMON, J. “The new penology”, in: McLAUGHLIN, E., MUNCIE, J. & HUGHER, G. (eds.). Criminological Perspectives: Essential Readings, 2º ed., SAGE, London, 2005, pp. 434-446.

FRANKEL, M. “Lawlessness in sentencing”, University of Cincinnati Law Review, vol. 1, nº 41, 1972.

GLÖCKNER, A. “The irrational hungry judge effect revisited simulations reveal that the magnitude of the effect is overestimated”, Judgment and Decision Making, vol. 11, nº 6 (2016), pp. 601-610, available in: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1930297500004812.

GRECO, L. Poder de julgar sem responsabilidade de julgador: a impossibilidade jurídica do juiz-robô, Marcial Pons, São Paulo, 2020.

GUIMARÃES NETO, S. L. Uma teoria da pena baseada na vítima: a busca pela satisfação do indivíduo vitimado como finalidade da pena, Marcial Pons, São Paulo, 2020.

HUTTON, N. “Sentencing, rationality, and computer technology”, Journal of Law and Society, vol. 22, nº 4, 1995, pp. 549-570, available in: https://doi.org/10.2307/1410614.

KAUFMAN, D. “Inteligência artificial: repensando a mediação”, Brazilian Journal of Development, vol. 6, nº 9, 2020, pp. 67621-67639, available in: https://doi.org/10.34117/bjdv6n9-264.

KAUFMAN, D. Desmistificando a inteligência artificial, Autêntica, Belo Horizonte, 2022.

KEARNS, M. & ROTH, A. The ethical algorithm: the science of socially aware algorithm design, Oxford University Press, New York, 2020.

KENNETH, J. G. The age of uncertainty, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, 1979.

LEE, K. Inteligência artificial: como os robôs estão mudando o mundo, a forma como amamos, nos relacionamos, trabalhamos e vivemos, Globo Livros, Rio de Janeiro, 2019.

LÉVY, P. As tecnologias da inteligência: o futuro do pensamento na era da informática, 2 ed., Editora 34, São Paulo, 2010.

MARCUSE, H. O homem unidimensional: estudos da ideologia da sociedade industrial avançada, Edipro, São Paulo, 2015.

McKAY, C. “Predicting risk in criminal procedure: actuarial tools, algorithms, AI and judicial decision-making”, Current Issues in Criminal Justice, vol. 32, nº 5 (2019), pp. 1-18, available in: https://doi.org/10.1080/10345329.2019.1658694.

NICOLELIS, M. O verdadeiro criador de tudo: como o cérebro humano esculpiu o universo como nós o conhecemos, Planeta, São Paulo, 2020.

PIMENTEL, A. F., BOLZAN DE MORAIS, J. L. & SALDANHA, P. M. “Estado de Direito e tecnopoder”, Justiça do Direito, vol. 35, nº 3, 2021, pp. 6-43. https://doi.org/10.5335/rjd.v35i3.13241.

PROEVE, M. & TUDOR, S. Remorse: psychological and jurisprudential perspectives, Ashgate, New York, 2010.

QUIRÓS, D. Z. Castigo e determinação da pena nos E.U.A.: um estudo sobre as United States Sentencing Guidelines, Empório do Direito, Florianópolis, 2017.

RYBERG, J. “Sentencing and algorithmic transparency”, in: RYBERG, J. & ROBERTS, J. V. (eds.). Sentencing and artificial intelligence, Oxford University Press, New York, 2022, pp. 13-33, available in: https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780197539538.003.0002.

RYBERG, J. “Sentencing disparity and artificial intelligence“, The Journal of Value Inquiry, vol. 57, nº 3 (2021), pp. 447-462, available in: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10790-021-09835-9.

RYBERG, J. & PETERSEN, T. S. “Sentencing and the conflict between algorithmic accuracy and transparency”, in: RYBERG, J. & ROBERTS, J. V. (eds.). Sentencing and artificial intelligence, Oxford University Press, New York, 2022, pp. 57-73, available in: https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780197539538.003.0004.

SADIN, É. La humanidad aumentada: la administración digital del mundo, Caja Negra, Buenos Aires, 2022.

SALOMÃO, L. F. (ed.). Tecnologia aplicada à gestão dos conflitos no âmbito do Poder Judiciário, 3rd edn, CIAPJ/FGV, Rio de Janeiro, 2022, available in: https://bdjur.stj.jus.br/jspui/handle/2011/156490, access: Aug, 14, 2023.

SANTAELLA, L. A inteligência artificial é inteligente?, Edições 70, São Paulo, 2022.

SCHWAB, K. A quarta revolução industrial, Edipro, São Paulo, 2016.

SCHWARTZE, M. & ROBERTS, J. V. “Reconciling artificial and human intelligence: supplementing not supplanting the sentencing judge”, in: RYBERG, J. & ROBERTS, J. V. (eds.). Sentencing and artificial intelligence, Oxford University Press, New York, 2022, pp. 206-229, available in: https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780197539538.003.0011.

SMITH, N. Justice through apologies: remorse, reform, and punishment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2014.

SPENGLER, H. Man and technics: a contribution to a philosophy of life, Allen & Unwin, London, 1932, available in: https://archive.org/details/oswaldspenglermanandtechnicsgeorgeallenunwin1932/page/n5/mode/2up, access: Aug. 8, 2023.

TAIRA, B. R., KREGER, V., ORUE, A. & DIAMOND, L. C. “A pragmatic assessment of Google Translate for emergency department instructions”, Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 36, nº 11 (2021), pp. 3361-3365, available in: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-021-06666-z.

TATA, C. “Resolute ambivalence: why Judiciaries do not institutionalize their decision support systems”, International Review of Law Computers & Technology, vol. 14, nº 3 (2000), pp. 297-316, available in: https://doi.org/10.1080/713673373.

TATA, C. Sentencing: a social process – rethinking research and policy, Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2020.

TAUK, C. & SALOMÃO, L. F. “Inteligência artificial no Judiciário brasileiro: estudo empírico sobre algoritmos e discriminação”, Diké (UESC), vol. 22, nº 23 (2023), pp. 2-32.

TEIXEIRA, A. Teoria da aplicação da pena: fundamentos de uma determinação judicial da pena proporcional ao fato, Marcial Pons, São Paulo, 2015.

THOMSEN, F. K. “Iudicium ex Machinae: the ethical challenges of ADM at sentencing”, in: RYBERG, J. & ROBERTS, J. V. (eds.). Sentencing and artificial intelligence, Oxford University Press, New York, 2022, p. 252-275, available in: https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780197539538.003.0013.

TONRY, M. Sentencing matters, Oxford University Press, New York, 1996.

TURING, A. “Computing machinery and intelligence”, Mind, vol. 59, nº 236 (1950), pp. 433-460, available in: https://doi.org/10.1093/mind/LIX.236.433.

VAN WINGERDEN, S. & PLESNIČAR, M. M. “Artificial intelligence and sentencing: humans against the machines”, in: RYBERG, J. & ROBERTS, J. V. (eds.). Sentencing and artificial intelligence, Oxford University Press, New York, 2022, pp. 230-251, available in: https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780197539538.003.0012.

WALMSLEY, J. “Artificial Intelligence and the value of transparency”, AI & Society, vol. 36 (2020), pp. 585-595, available in: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00146-020-01066-z.

WIENER, N. Cibernética ou controle e comunicação no animal e na máquina. Perspectiva, São Paulo, 2017.

ZUBOFF, S. A era do capitalismo de vigilância: a luta por um futuro humano na nova fronteira do poder, Intrínseca, Rio de Janeiro, 2020.

Publicado

30-03-2024

Cómo citar

Silveira de Queirós Campos, G. y Bedê Jr., A. (2024) «Sentencing in the age of artificial intelligence: possibilities, ethical issues, and the intrinsic human nature of the adjudication process», Cadernos de Dereito Actual, (23). Disponible en: https://cadernosdedereitoactual.es/ojs/index.php/cadernos/article/view/1101 (Accedido: 23 abril 2024).